Development
Development
 

 

argaiv1076

 

** Global Corruption Report: Education. Edited by Transparency International. Foreword by Navanethem Pillay (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights). London & NY: Earthscan from Routledge, Sept 2013, 418p, $59.95pb (also as e-book; www.routledge.com/9780415535496).Transparency International’s flagship publication focuses this year on education and research. It presents 67 articles commissioned from experts in the fields of corruption and education, from universities, think-tanks, business, civil society and international organizations. Education is a fundamental human right, and a major driver of individual and social development. But it is particularly prone to corruption—the abuse of entrusted power for private gain—due to the high stakes of educational opportunity and the large sums allocated to fund it. When expectations for success involve corruption, the rules learned by young people are likely to extend from schools and colleges into every other sector of society that they subsequently enter. Corruption in Schools can include procurement in construction, “shadow schools,” absenteeism, “ghost teachers,” diversion of resources intended for textbooks and supplies, bribery in access to education, buying of grades, nepotism in teacher appointments, sexual exploitation, and fake diplomas. Corruption in Higher Education can mirror problems of schools. But they can also include payments in recruitment and admissions, nepotism in tenured postings, bribery in grading and campus accommodations, political and corporate undue influence in research, plagiarism, “ghost authorship,” and editorial misconduct in academic journals. Chapters address such topics as international standards to realize the right of education, education sector procurement, governance instruments to combat corruption in higher education, combating financial fraud in higher education, transparency in US higher education job placement data (especially a problem in law schools), corruption in the academic career, impacts of globalization on the academic profession, scientific research integrity, identifying priorities for intervention, public expenditure tracking in education, testing new tools for accountability, private civil actions as a powerful tool in fighting corruption, encouraging citizen reporting, making oversight participatory, and much more. Concludes that “There are no simple remedies for tackling corruption in the education sector,” and strategies need to be tailored to national contexts. This report “therefore serves as a reference of adaptable tools and solutions for your school, university, locality, district and country. It is a call to action to governments, business, teachers and academics, students and researchers, parents and citizens the world over to reclaim education from the scourge of corruption. Future generations deserve no less.” (p.xxiii) [NOTE: Authoritative coverage of a very wide range of corrupt education-related activities in both developing and developed countries (including Germany, the UK, and US), with linkage to the broader concern of human rights.] (EDUCATION * HIGHER EDUCATION * HUMAN RIGHTS * DEVELOPMENT * CORRUPTION AND EDUCATION)


* Fragile States: Resource Flows and Trends. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: OECD, March 2013, 106p, $42pb (with free e-book). By 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than US$1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal #1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015. Fragile states or provinces lack the ability to develop mutually constructive relations with society and often have a weak capacity to carry out basic governance functions. Fragile situations matter because they are home to an increasingly concentrated proportion of the world’s poor. They are also more susceptible to instability, with potential regional and global consequences. Fragility matters because of the risk it poses to regional and global stability. The report takes stock of 1) the evolution of fragility as a concept, 2) analyses of financial flows to and within fragile states between 2000 and 2010, and 3) trends and issues that are likely to shape fragility in the years to come; it also provides policy and decision-makers in donor countries and fragile states with a tool to monitor the levels, trends and quality of past and future resource flows (aid and beyond) in situations of fragility, and highlights issues and countries of concern. (DEVELOPMENT * FRAGILE STATES)

 

** Development Co-operation Report 2013: Ending Poverty. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: OECD, Nov 2013, 300p, $93 (download free at www.oecd-ilibrary.org). The world is probably on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of halving the proportion of people whose income is less than $1.25 a day by 2015. Nonetheless, we are far from achieving the overarching MDG of eradicating extreme poverty. This report focuses on the very poor and describes the nature and dimensions of poverty today and what development co-operation – and the global partnerships it supports – can do in the fight against poverty. Chapters discuss defining and measuring extreme poverty, policies that tackle poverty (economic growth is not sufficient to eradicate all dimensions of poverty), and the new post-2015 framework for ending poverty (UN's vision, global public goods, “smart” development co-operation, momentum to end poverty). “To recapture the Millennium Declaration’s vision, the new international development agenda must embody principles of solidarity, equality, dignity, and respect for nature. It will need goals that can effectively guide core aspirations, targets that are easy to monitor, and strategies for economic and social transformation.” The new agenda should be applicable to all counties, but with responsibilities that vary according to a country’s starting point and resources. Targets should be set nationally, but with global minimum standards and sustained support for fragile states. New directions for ending poverty: 1) see development as a shift from poverty to power by empowering people--especially women and the chronically poor; 2) build inclusive and sustainable economies that enable the poorest to participate in and benefit from growth; “this will require a root-and-branch re-orientation and reprioritization of policies and programs—especially in agriculture, education, energy, and employment”; 3) provide systems of social protection—employment guarantees, cash transfers, pensions, child and disability allowances—to create a virtuous circle; 4) make environmental sustainability and natural resources a core priority, linked to poverty reduction and well-being; 5) invest in smallholder agriculture to tackle poverty and promote broad-based economic growth in poor and largely rural countries; 6) support the exchange of knowledge and experience on poverty reduction; 7) a new Global partnership for Effective Development Co-operation is needed to catalyze and coordinate global efforts and resources; 8) recognize that peace and the reduction of violence are the foundations of poverty eradication. (WORLD FUTURES * DEVELOPMENT * POVERTY: NEW WAYS TO END * POST-2015 ANTI-POVERTY AGENDA)

 

* Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: OECD, May 2013, 150p, $53pb (with free e-book). Green growth is vital to secure a brighter, more sustainable future for developing countries, which will pay a high price for failing to tackle local and global environmental threats because they are more dependent on natural resources and are more vulnerable to resources scarcity and natural disasters. The report provides a twin-track approach with agendas for national and international action. Topics cover development dimensions of green growth, policy framework (planning, policies, aligning current growth policies with green growth, implementation and related institutional mechanisms), international cooperation for green growth, and measuring progress. Conclusions: 1) green growth is about integrating environment into economic decision-making for sustainable development; 2) failure to embrace green growth threatens to usher in an era of global instability; 3) green growth puts environmental sustainability at the heart of the national development agenda; 4) well-designed green growth policies can reduce poverty and inequality; and 5) green growth anchors sustainability in development goals. (GREEN GROWTH * DEVELOPMENT * SUSTAINABILTY)

 

* Learning to Change the World: The Social Impact of One Laptop Per Child. Walter Bender (co-founder, One Laptop per Child; former director, MIT Media Laboratory), Charles Kane (board member, One Laptop per Child Association; senior lecturer in International Finance and Social Entrepreneurship, MIT-Sloan Graduate School of Management), Jody Cornish (partner, New Profit, Inc.), and Neal Donahue (President, Lodestar International). NY & UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Dec 2012, 256p, $28 (also as ebook). In 2005, MIT professor Nicholas Negroponte announced at the World Economic Forum that One Laptop per Child seeks to provide rugged laptops to the world’s poorest children. UNESCO estimates that 11% of primary school–age children—72 million worldwide—are not enrolled in or attending school. Many other children who do attend may find themselves in impossible situations for learning. The mission of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is to “empower the children of developing countries to learn.” OLPC created the first affordable netbook specifically built to withstand harsh climates and the handling of young children--an example of a non-profit organization with aspirations for systemic change on a global scale. Challenges that it faces: 1) how to ensure that market forces support the scale-up of a social program; 2) how to balance the need to repeat past successes, but still leave room for innovation; 3) how to leverage a network to expand impact beyond the original capabilities; 4) how to help people without creating dependence. [Also see Special Report on “Learning in the Digital Age” (Scientific American, Ag 2013, 51-73), with articles on tailored machine learning, “high-speed schools” with great broadband access, and MOOCs (free massive open online courses).] (EDUCATION * DEVELOPMENT * ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD)

* Learning to Change the World: The Social Impact of One Laptop Per Child. Walter Bender (co-founder, One Laptop per Child; former director, MIT Media Laboratory), Charles Kane (board member, One Laptop per Child Association; senior lecturer in International Finance and Social Entrepreneurship, MIT-Sloan Graduate School of Management), Jody Cornish (partner, New Profit, Inc.), and Neal Donahue (President, Lodestar International). NY & UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Dec 2012, 256p, $28 (also as ebook). In 2005, MIT professor Nicholas Negroponte announced at the World Economic Forum that One Laptop per Child seeks to provide rugged laptops to the world’s poorest children. UNESCO estimates that 11% of primary school–age children—72 million worldwide—are not enrolled in or attending school. Many other children who do attend may find themselves in impossible situations for learning. The mission of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is to “empower the children of developing countries to learn.” OLPC created the first affordable netbook specifically built to withstand harsh climates and the handling of young children--an example of a non-profit organization with aspirations for systemic change on a global scale. Challenges that it faces: 1) how to ensure that market forces support the scale-up of a social program; 2) how to balance the need to repeat past successes, but still leave room for innovation; 3) how to leverage a network to expand impact beyond the original capabilities; 4) how to help people without creating dependence. [Also see Special Report on “Learning in the Digital Age” (Scientific American, Ag 2013, 51-73), with articles on tailored machine learning, “high-speed schools” with great broadband access, and MOOCs (free massive open online courses).] (EDUCATION * DEVELOPMENT * ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD)


* Human Development Report 2012: The Rise of the South - Human Progress in a Diverse World. United Nations Development Programme. NY: United Nations Publications, Nov 2012, 200p, $30. The rapid emergence of the South will transform 21st century economics and politics in ways at least as fundamental as those witnessed in the wars and technological revolutions of the 20th century. The report focuses on the changing dynamics of power, voice and wealth in the world, and policies and institutions necessary to promote greater social equity, sustainability and cohesion. (HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT * DEVELOPMENT)

 

* Arab Human Development Report 2012, Tenth Edition: Empowerment - The Will of the People. United Nations Development Programme. NY: United Nations Publications, March 2013, 264p, $28. The ten-year anniversary of the Arab Human Development Report series reassesses development paths of the Arab countries, identifies key trends and areas of progress and challenge, as well as lessons learned and positive examples supporting human development. Topics include peace and stability; education and values; opportunities and challenges for youth; sustainability; rule of law, integrity and transparency; poverty and social development; and the public sphere. (DEVELOPMENT * MIDDLE EAST * ARAB HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT)

 

* Routledge Handbook of Global Poverty and Inequality. Edited by David Hulme and Rorden Wilkinson (both, U of Manchester, UK). NY: Routledge, July 2014, 384p, $205 (www.routledge.com/9780415692410). An overview of current research and thinking, detailing the multiple ways in which poverty and inequality are manifest. The four sections are devoted to: 1) overviews of the history, geography, and extent of global poverty and inequality, as well as old and new ideas for amelioration; 2) key concepts in the field; 3) the intersection of global poverty and inequality with the environment, conflict, gender, ethics, hunger and food security, health, employment, and radicalization; 4) prominent ways in which resources have been mobilized to end poverty and attenuate inequality. (POVERTY * INEQUALITY * DEVELOPMENT)

* World Development Report 2013: Jobs. Washington DC: World Bank, Oct 2012, 420p (8x10.5”), $35pb. Poverty falls as people work their way out of hardship and as jobs empowering women lead to greater investments in children. Efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do, as more productive jobs appear, and less productive ones disappear. Societies flourish as jobs bring together people from different ethnic and social backgrounds and provide alternatives to conflict. Jobs are thus more than a byproduct of economic growth. They are transformational--they are what we earn, what we do, and who we are. The 2013 report looks at jobs as drivers of development--not as derived labor demand--and by considering all types of jobs, not just formal wage employment, provides a framework that cuts across sectors and shows that the best policy responses vary across countries, depending on their levels of development, endowments, demography, and institutions. Also explores the notion of the “good job,” in that some jobs do more for economic and social development than for others, by reducing poverty and inequality and strengthening value chains and production clusters. (WORK * JOBS * DEVELOPMENT AND JOBS)

* Green Grabbing: A New Appropriation of Nature (Series: Critical Agrarian Studies / Journal of Peasant Studies). Edited by James Fairhead (Chair in Social Anthropology, U of Sussex), Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones (both Fellows, Institute of Development Studies, U of Sussex). NY: Routledge, April 2013, 416p, $155.  Across the world, ecosystems are for sale. The appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. A vigorous debate on ‘land grabbing’ already highlights instances where ‘green’ credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel. Environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs. Green grabs may be driven by biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services or ecotourism, for example. Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances. The text draws together 17 original cases from African, Asian, and Latin American settings.  Addresses the extent and  ways that ‘green grabs’ constitute new forms of appropriation of nature, the political and discursive dynamics that underpin ‘green grabs,’ how and when appropriations on the ground emerge out of circulations of green capital, and implications for the ecologies, landscapes, livelihoods, agrarian social relations, and restructuring rights and authority in whose interests. (DEVELOPMENT *GREEN GRABBING * LAND GRABS * ENVIRONMENT)

 

* Crisis of Global Sustainability (Global Institutions Series). Tapio Kanninen (Senior Research Fellow, Institute for International Studies, CUNY Graduate Center;  Co-Director, Project on Sustainable Global Governance). NY: Routledge, Feb 2013, 188p, $29.95pb (also as e-book).  The text provides for the first time a compact insider description of the evolution and impact of the Club of Rome, a global think tank that produced a groundbreaking 1972 study "The Limits to Growth" which highlighted the dangers of unrestrained economic growth and possible collapse of global economy during the first decades of the 21st century. With recent research confirming the validity of these concerns, Kanninen asks whether our overarching concept of thinking on world development today should continue to be "global sustainability", which implies that we still have enough time to make adjustments in our future policies and action. Or should the main paradigm of our thinking shift to "global survivability," a concept that stresses the absolute necessity of immediate and drastic change both in institutions and policies? Many environmentalists, green politicians and think tanks are speaking today more loudly than ever about the necessity for a major policy, institutional and paradigm change.  Can it happen?  (DEVELOPMENT * SUSTAINABILITY * GLOBAL SURVIVABILITY * CLUB OF ROME * LIMITS TO GROWTH)

 

* Food Security: From Crisis to Global Governance (Routledge Critical Security Studies). Nora McKeon (Food and Agriculture Organization, UN). NY: Routledge, Aug 2013, 224p, $42.95pb.  Discusses concerns for food security in the context of global food governance in the 21st century and highlights the systemic inadequacies of the present food system and of the dominant strategies for achieving food security. Examining the post-World War II history of addressing food issues, McKeon’s work draws lessons from experience, tracing the evolution of three strongly interconnected factors: 1) the institutions in which global decision-making on food security has been exercised, 2) the paradigms on which their strategies and actions have been based, 3) the actors that have influenced decision-making and the interests they represent. Special attention is given to the dynamic links between different levels of decision-making on food security (from the household to the global), key global issues, responses of the international community to the food crisis, and how reforming the Committee on World Food Security can address deficiencies of the present system.  (FOOD SECURITY * GLOBAL GOVERNANCE * DEVELOPMENT)

 

* The Routledge Handbook of Human Security. Edited by Mary Martin (London School of Economics) and Taylor Owen (Oxford U). NY: Routledge, July 2013, 384p, $205. Human security has grown greatly in importance over the past fifteen years, since the concept was first promoted by the UNDP in its 1993 and 1994 Human Development Reports. The authors fill a gap in the literature on human security and provide a broad overview of human security scholarship and thinking, reflecting the multi-disciplinary perspectives which have informed the development of the concept and its policy use. They also elaborate on how human security has been theorized, and tackle some of the methodological issues which it raises. Three broad aspects of human security thinking are considered: 1) theoretical issues, 2) policy and institutional perspectives, and 3) case studies and empirical work.  Chapters discuss Human Security vs. Human Rights vs. Human Development; the critical view of human security; human and national security; global policy challenges to HS (violence and conflict, development/poverty, disasters, environment, health); economics and human security; human security applications in Canada, Japan, European Union, African Union, the US, Asia, and Latin America; and methodologies, tools, indicators, mapping, etc. (SECURITY * HUMAN SECURITY * DEVELOPMENT * GLOBAL GOVERNANCE) 

 

* From Aid to Development: The Global Fight against Poverty.  Brian Keeley.  Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, June 2012, 188p, $19pb and e-book. The balance of economic power is shifting. Countries that were once poor are becoming economic powerhouses. Yet poverty persists worldwide, depriving billions of people of basic necessities and the prospects of creating a better life. The efforts of aid and development co-operation can be made more effective  in achieving lasting benefits through good governance and the creation of a deeper partnership between developed and developing countries. The economic emergence of countries like China and India is bringing a new dynamic to development co-operation. Topics include: 1) the persistence of poverty, 2) positive uses of aid, 3) shifting development goals and motivations, 4) results of aid programs, 5) development relationships, policies and governance matters, 6) China and India --new partners for development. (DEVELOPMENT * CHINA AND INDIA: POVERTY REDUCTION: OECD * AID PROGRAMS)

 

* Poverty Reduction and Pro-Poor Growth: The Role of Empowerment.  OECD.   Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, April 2012, 300p, $117pb and e-book. The Poverty Reduction Guidelines (OECD, 2001) elaborate a concept of poverty that is multidimensional and sees the lack of power as much a manifestation of poverty as low incomes, illiteracy, and poor health.  Eight domains of empowerment within three spheres: 1) the economic (markets, decent employment, and productive assets); 2) the political (political representation and collective action); and 3) the social (human capabilities, critical awareness and inclusion). Donors need to support and strengthen empowerment in those domains. Topics include empowerment of poor rural people, women's economic empowerment, empowerment through local citizenship, empowerment in fragile states and situations of fragility, employment, legal empowerment, empowerment and equity, social movements, monitoring and evaluating empowerment processes, empowerment and sustainability, and phasing out support to empowerment processes. (DEVELOPMENT * PRO-POOR GROWTH * POVERTY REDUCTION: OECD * EMPOWERMENT OF POOR)

 

* Compact City Policies: A Comparative Assessment. OECD.  Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, June 2012, 284p, $88 (e-book). Sustainable urban development – achieving environmental preservation, social equity and economic development – remains an urgent global challenge in a world that continues to urbanise. This report discusses sustainable urban development from the perspective of urban spatial form – or how we use urban spaces. Importantly, it highlights how urban spatial policies can help foster economic growth and development while preventing environmental degradation and climate change.   Key characteristics of a compact city are dense and proximate development patterns, built-up areas linked by public transport systems, and accessibility to local services and jobs. Key strategies for compact cities: set explicit goals, encourage dense development, retrofit existing built-up areas, enhance diversity and quality of life, and minimize adverse negative effects.   Also considers compact city policies and their contribution to Green Growth, and indicators to monitor policy performance. Special issues: 1) the link between environmental and economic outcomes: how the compact city can help to support and foster economic growth while addressing environmental concerns; 2) indicators for monitoring and evaluating the performance of a compact city; 3) major policy instruments in OECD countries, with five case study metropolitan areas: Melbourne, Vancouver, Paris, Toyama (Japan), and Portland (US); and 4) comparative assessment of cities. (CITIES * COMPACT CITIES * GREEN GROWTH)

 

* OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Germany 2012OECD. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, May 2012, 162p, $49 (e-book). Over the last decade, Germany has continued to promote ambitious environmental policies. While experiencing robust economic growth during most of the 2000s, Germany has made further progress in reducing the carbon, energy, and resource intensities of its economy, bringing down emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and improving waste and water management. In some areas, such as water and air quality and biodiversity, progress has nevertheless not been sufficient to reach domestic and international objectives. Overall, Germany’s environmental policies enjoy strong public support, and citizens are relatively satisfied with their environmental quality of life. Key developments: 1) there has been a shift from sector-specific to more comprehensive and cross-cutting policies, including development of a National Sustainable Development Strategy and important initiatives on biodiversity, climate change, energy and resource efficiency; 2) Germany used taxation policy to pursue environmental objectives, and made progress in removing fiscal incentives that can encourage environmentally harmful activities; 3) Germany’s environmental innovation performance has been supported by a strong national innovation framework, a broad industrial base, a high level of participation in international trade, and strict environmental regulations; and 4) Germany managed to considerably reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions over the 2000s and will meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol exclusively through domestic measures. [Note: OECD Environmental Performance Reviews seek to improve governments’ environmental performance, individually and collectively; it is supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and covers all OECD member countries, and selected partner countries.] (ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE * SUSTAINABILITY * GREEN GROWTH * GERMANY)

 
 
* Crisis, Innovation and Sustainable Development: The Ecological Opportunity.  Edited by Blandine Laperche (Clersé CNRS U Lille Nord de France; affiliated Prof, Wesford Business School), Nadine Levratto (EconomiX, CNRS, U Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense; and affiliated Prof, Euromed Management) and Dimitri Uzunidis (Clersé CNRS U Lille Nord de France). Northampton MA: Edward Elgar, April 2012, 352p, $150 (on-line price $135). A genuine greening of the economy draws on both theoretical and practical aspects and cannot be achieved by companies alone, but can only be the result of different kinds of innovation (technological, organizational, institutional and lifestyle changes), which must be implemented at all levels, from the firm to international governance. The authors study the strength of change for building a new society, and the theoretical origins and political aspects of environmental concerns to sketch the outlines of a global governance system seeking to promote sustainable development. Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, the volume contributes to the economics of innovation, environmental economics and political economy, and policy studies. (DEVELOPMENT * SUSTAINABILITY * GREEN ECONOMIES * INNOVATION)
* Handbook on Climate Change and Agriculture. Edited by Ariel Dinar (Prof of Environmental Economics and Policy and Director, Water Science and Policy Center, U of California, Riverside) and Robert Mendelsohn (Prof of Forestry Policy, Yale U). Northampton MA: Edward Elgar, 2012, 544p, $245 (on-line price $220.50). Agriculture is essential to the livelihood of people and nations, especially in the developing world; therefore, any impact on it will have significant economic, social, and political ramifications. Climate change is likely to have an extensive impact on agriculture around the world through changes in temperature, precipitation, concentrations of carbon dioxide, and available water flows. Scholars from around the world analyze direct agronomic effects, the economic impacts on agriculture, agricultural impacts on the economy, agricultural mitigation, and farmer adaptation.  Topics include: 1) climate impacts and adaptation (security and uncertainty of global crop production, effects of climate variability on domestic livestock, use of crop models for climate change impact assessment, connections between climate change, drought and agricultural production); 2) economic studies of climate impacts on agriculture (farm-level impacts; impact of climate change on US agriculture); 3) agricultural impacts on the economy (adaptation strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa; integrated assessment models; growth and trade in agricultural adaptation to environmental change); 4) agricultural mitigation (biofuels and climate change; agricultural projects under the Clean Development Mechanism); and 5) adaptation to agricultural impacts (hydro-economic modeling in California; the use of endogenous irrigation and protected agriculture technology; technological innovation in agriculture; mixed crop–livestock farming systems in developing countries; insurance as an adaptation to climate variability in agriculture; the choice of livestock species in African and Latin American farms; effective institutions and infrastructure).] (CLIMATE CHANGE * FOOD AND AGRICULTURE *  AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE * DEVELOPMENT)

* Post-2015 Development Agenda: Goals, Targets and Indicators. Barry Carin (Senior Fellow, CIGI) et al. Waterloo, Canada: Centre for International Governance Innovation, Oct 2012, 63p (www.cigionline.org/publications).  The UN’s Millennium Development Goals for a more peaceful, prosperous, and just world, launched in 2000, set specific targets to be met by 2015, with indicators to measure progress.  By 2015, the world will have met some of the MDG’s key targets, such as halving the poverty rate, and will be close to achieving primary education for all children.  But health goals are difficult, and Africa lags behind, despite substantial progress since 2000.  “Overall, the MDGs have been remarkably successful in focusing attention and mobilizing resources to address the major gaps in human development.  Building on the MDGs, the global community should move beyond meeting basic human needs and promote dynamic, inclusive, and sustainable development.  Future goals must reach beyond traditional development thinking to become sustainable one-world goals.” Based on discussions at a 2011 meeting in Italy, 11 potential “Bellagio Goals” are proposed: 1) inclusive growth for dignified livelihoods and adequate standards of living; 2) sufficient food and water; 3) appropriate education and skills for productive participation in society; 4) good health for the best possible physical and mental well-being; 5) security for ensuring freedom from violence; 6) gender equality, enabling women and men to participate and benefit equally in society; 7) building resilient communities and nations for reduced disaster risk; 8) improving infrastructure for access to essential information, services, and opportunities; 9) empowering people to realize their civil and political rights; 10) sustainable management of the biosphere, enabling people and planet to thrive together; 11) global governance and equitable rules for realizing human potential.  Much of this report (pp30-58) reviews a menu of indicators and data sources for these goals, so as to measure progress and galvanize public support.  [NOTE: An important step forward, nicely complementing—albeit complexifying--the WBCSD vision (above) and the MP challenges (below).]  (WORLD FUTURES * DEVELOPMENT POST-2015 * GOALS FOR POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT)
 
 

**OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050:  The Consequences of InactionOECD.  Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, March 2012, 350p, $112.  Humanity has witnessed unprecedented growth and prosperity in the past decades, with the size of the world economy more than tripling and population increasing by over 3 billion people since 1970. This growth, however, has been accompanied by environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. The current growth model and the mismanagement of natural assets could ultimately undermine human development.   Based on joint modelling by the OECD and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, the report looks forward to 2050 to find out what demographic and economic trends might mean for the environment if the world does not adopt more ambitious green policies. Also looks at what policies could change that picture for the better. Focuses ontwo scenarios (a Baseline Scenario and a 450 Delayed Action Scenarios) and four areas – climate change, biodiversity, freshwater and health impacts of pollution – all identified by the previous Environmental Outlook to 2030 (OECD, 2008) as issues requiring urgent attention.  (ENVIRONMENT * DEVELOPMENT * ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION * ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT)

 

* Tackling the Policy Challenges of Migration: Regulation, Integration, Development.  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  Paris: OECD, Feb 2012, 120p, $39pb.   The current governance of migration is both insufficient and inefficient.  Restrictive and non-cooperative migration policies affect development in migrant-sending countries and have counterproductive effects in the countries that implement them. The lack of integration policies generates costs for society.  Focuses on South-South migration, regulation of migration flows, integration of immigrants, and impact of labor mobility on development.   (MIGRATION * DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATION)
 
* Perspectives on Global Development 2012: Social Cohesion in a Shifting World.  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.  Paris: OECD, Nov 2011, 200p.  “Shifting wealth" – a process that started in the 1990s and took off in the 2000s – has led to a completely new geography of growth driven by the economic rise of large developing countries, in particular China and India.  “The center of economic gravity of the world has progressively shifted from West to East and from North to South, resulting in a new geography of growth.” More than 80 countries grew twice as fast as the OECD average in the last decade, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty.  The resulting re-configuration of the global economy will shape the political, economic and social agendas of international development as those of the converging and poor countries for the years to come.  Recent events in well-performing countries in the Arab world (but also beyond such as in Thailand, China and India) seem to suggest that economic growth, rising fiscal resources, and improvements in education are not sufficient  to create cohesion; governments need to address social deficits and actively promote social cohesion if long-term development is to be sustainable.  This report examines social cohesion in fast-growing developing countries and provides policy makers with recommendations for ways to strengthen it. A cohesive society works towards the well-being of all its members, fights exclusion and marginalization, creates a sense of belonging, promotes trust, and offers its members the opportunity of upward mobility.  Social cohesion is viewed through three different, but equally important lenses: social inclusion, social capital, and social mobility.  Concludes with a policy agenda for social cohesion, including sustainable fiscal policies, employment and social protection policies, enhancing civic participation, and coordinating actions across policy areas.  [NOTE: An important re-grouping of the obsolete “Third World” category into “converging” and “poor” countries.]                                                            (DEVELOPMENT *
SOCIAL COHESION* “SHIFTING WEALTH” * WORLD ECONOMY * COHESIVE SOCIETY * SOCIETY)
 
* Better Policies for Development: Recommendations for Policy CoherenceOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.  Paris: OECD, Sept 2011, 80p.  “Around 40-45% of the world’s employed are unable to earn enough to lift themselves and their families above the US$2/day poverty line, and millions work in hazardous conditions.  The IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 estimates 1.4 billion people worldwide still lack access to electricity, projected to fall only marginally to 1.2 billion by 2030.  Some 2.7 billion rely on traditional use of biomass, with a projected increase to 2.8 billion in 2030.   Focuses on areas requiring collective action by the entire international community and features 18 development policy topics divided into four broad categories: 1) sustainable economic growth (macro-economic policy, trade, investment, financial regulation, science, technology & innovation); 2) economic governance (taxation, anti-corruption, illicit financial flows), 3) environment and natural resource security (climate change, food security, water security, energy security), and 4) society (conflict and fragility, labor, education, migration, health). (DEVELOPMENT * DEVELOPMENT POLICY: OECD OVERVIEW)
 
* Global Development Horizons 2011—Multipolarity: The New Global EconomyWorld Bank.  Washington DC: World Bank Publications, June 2011, 180p (8x12”), $35.  The days of US global economic dominance are numbered. By 2025, a multi-polar world will emerge in which economic clout is spread across developed and emerging economies.  Transition to a new world order with more diffuse distribution of economic power is under way through three major international economic trends: 1) the shift in the balance of global growth from developed to emerging economies, 2) the rise of emerging-market firms as a force in global business, and 3) the evolution of the international monetary system toward a multicurrency regime.  Emerging and developing counties accounted for 46 % of international trade flows in 2010, up from 30 % in 1995.  Cross-border mergers and acquisitions originated by firms based in emerging markets represent nearly one-third of global M&A transactions.  The risk of investing in emerging economies has declined dramatically, while emerging economies’ financial assets and wealth have expanded: emerging and developing countries now hold three-fourth of all official foreign exchange reserves.  The Bank projects emerging economies to grow an average of 4.7%/year through 2025, more than double the 2.3% forecast for advanced economies. (Also see the companion website http://www.worldbank.org/GDH2011, for this first edition of a new “flagship” report.)  
(WORLD ECONOMY * DEVELOPMENT)
 
* Development Financing and Economic Insecurity.  Edited by Rob Vos.  NY: United Nations Publications and Bloomsbury Academic Publications, July 2011, 256p, $38.  Despite the rise in recent decades of the average income level, economic insecurity has increased in both developed and developing countries.  Increasing economic insecurity is harmful for human welfare: economic volatility and job uncertainty exert negative influence on productive investment, thereby hurting long-term development, while job and income insecurity negatively influences the material and psychological well-being of people.  Examines the causes of economic insecurity and how improved financial systems, macroeconomic policies, and microfinancing schemes could mitigate insecurity.
 (DEVELOPMENT * ECONOMIC INSECURITY RISING WORLDWIDE)
 
* Human Development Report 2011: Sustainability and Equity—Challenges for Human Development.  United Nations Development Programme.  NY: United Nations Publications, Nov 2011, 180p, $43.  Examines the urgent global challenge of sustainable development and its relationship to rising inequality within and among countries, as well as long-term inequality trends at national and global level.  Notes that “those who will suffer most from climate change are disproportionately those least responsible for environmental deterioration.”  Seeks to identify policies that would make development both more sustainable and more equitable in coming decades.                   (INEQUALITY RISING *
SUSTAINABILITY AND EQUITY * HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT * DEVELOPMENT)
 
* The Plundered Planet: Why We Must – and How We Can – Manage Nature for Global ProsperityPaul Collier (Prof of Economics, Oxford U).  NY: Oxford UP, Nov 2011, 224p, $16.95pb.  Proper stewardship of natural assets and liabilities is a matter of planetary urgency.  The author of The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing builds on his work in developing countries to confront the global mismanagement of natural resources, and charts a course between unchecked profiteering and environmental romanticism to offer realistic and sustainable solutions to complex issues.  Collier proposes 1) a series of international standards that would help poor countries rich in natural assets better manage those resources, 2) policy changes that would raise world food supply, and 3) an approach to climate change that acknowledges the benefits of industrialization while addressing the need for alternatives to carbon trading. (ENVIRONMENT * DEVELOPMENT AND NAURAL ASSETS)
 
* Patterns of Potential Human Progress, Volume 3: Improving Global Health—Forecasting the Next 50 Years. Barry B. Hughes (Prof of Pol Sci and Director, Pardee Center for International Futures, U of Denver) and four others. Boulder CO: Paradigm Publishers, Jan 2011, 352p (8x11”), $49.95pb.  (Free PDF download at www.ifs.du.edu).  Uses the International Futures (IFs) simulation model to explore prospects for human development that appear to be unfolding globally and locally, how we would like it to evolve, and how better to move in desired directions.  Volume 1 explored prospects for reducing global poverty and Volume 2 considered education [see Pardee Center in GFB index].  This volume focuses on possible futures for the health of peoples, health outcomes we might expect given current patterns of development, opportunities for intervention and achieving alternative health futures, and how improved health futures might affect broader prospects of countries, regions, and the world.  Topics include measuring the disease burden, drivers of health, proximate risk factors (undernutrition, obesity, tobacco use), environmental risk factors (sanitation, air pollution, climate change), and integrated scenario analysis.                                                                                         (WORLD FUTURES * PARDEE
CENTER * INTERNATIONAL FUTURES MODEL  * HEALTH: GLOBAL OVERVIEW * DEVELOPMENT)
 
* Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global PovertyAbhijit V. Banerjee (Prof of Economics, MIT) and Esther Duflo (Prof of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics, MIT).  NY: Public Affairs, April 2011, 336p, $26.99.  Reappraises the world of the extreme poor, their lives, desires, and frustrations.  Billions of government dollars, and thousands of charitable organizations and NGOs, are dedicated to helping the world's poor. But much of their work is based on assumptions that are untested generalizations at best, and harmful misperceptions at worst.  Identifies new aspects of the behavior of poor people, their needs, and the way that aid or financial investment can affect their lives. Defies certain presumptions: that microfinance is a cure-all, that schooling equals learning, and that poverty below $1 a day is just a more extreme version of the experience any of us have when our income falls uncomfortably low.  The authors are co-founders and directors of the Poverty Action Lab at MIT, which supervises randomized control trials in dozens of countries. 
(DEVELOPMENT * POVERTY ACTION LAB--MIT * POVERTY RETHOUGHT)
 
*The Day After Tomorrow: The Future of Economic Policy in the Developing World.  Edited by Otaviano Canuto and Marcelo Giugale.  Washington DC: World Bank, Sept 2010/300p/$35.  More than twenty World Bank practitioners deliver their policy agenda for, and likely economic evolution of, developing countries in the post-crisis era. 
(ECONOMIC POLICY IN DEVELOPING WORLD * DEVELOPMENT)
 
** Patterns of Potential Human Progress.  Vol 1: Reducing Global PovertyBarry B. Hughes (Prof of International Studies and director, Pardee Center for International Futures, U of Denver) and five others. Boulder CO: Paradigm Publishers, Aug 2009/352p/$39.95pb (free pdf at www.ifs.du.edu).   The first in a new series inspired by the UN Human Development Reports and Millennium Development Goals, using the large-scale International Futures program developed by Hughes over three decades.  Explores a multi-issue database and a wide range of scenarios, looking 50 years into the future.  Chapters discuss the character and extent of poverty, the need for a long horizon, measures of poverty, poverty reduction strategies, framing uncertainty with proximate drivers (population, economic growth, distribution), levers to change the future of poverty (fertility, human and social capital, governance, infrastructure, natural capital, knowledge), international drivers (trade and FDI, worker remittances, foreign aid), the multiple faces of poverty and its future (in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Europe), conflict and poverty, and corruption and poverty.  Concludes that the horizon of global goal setting should be at least to 2030, and 2050 seems reasonable.  The difficulty of rapid progress should be explicitly acknowledged, and global goals should not pretend to be appropriate for all regions and nations.  Finally, the global development community needs integrated reviews of progress toward goals, with analysis of potential for future progress.
(WORLD FUTURES * GLOBAL POVERTY REDUCTION * DEVELOPMENT: 50-YEAR OUTLOOK * INTERNATIONAL FUTURES MODEL * PARDEE CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL FUTURES)
 
* Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way. Steve Radelet (senior adviser, office of US Secretary of State; former senior fellow CGD).  Washington: Center for Global Development (dist by Brookings Institution Press), Sept 2010/125p/$18.95pb.  Describes too-often-overlooked positive changes in much of Africa since the mid-1990s: rise of democracy, stronger economic management, end of the debt crisis and engagement in a more constructive relationship with the international community, spread of new technologies (mobile phones and the internet), emergence of a new generation of leaders in 17 countries: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Principe, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.                       (DEVELOPMENT * AFRICA * REGIONS/NATIONS)
 
*Delivering Aid Differently: Lessons from the Field.  Edited by Wolfgang Fengler (lead economist, World Bank, Nairobi) and Homi Kharas (senior fellow in Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution).  Washington: Brookings Institution Press, Aug 2010/275p/$28.95pb.   For many years after WWII, development aid was delivered mainly through government institutions.  Today, many new donors and nongovernmental organizations have stepped in, and nearly every nation today is part of the “aid business,” either as a recipient or a donor.  The entry of many new players into what is now a $200 billion/year aid industry demands fresh kinds of coordination.  Argues for differentiated delivery of aid from a diverse group of donors supported by shared networks of high-quality information on needs, aid inputs, and aid outcomes.  This can prevent waste (estimated to tens of billions dollars a year) while still providing fair and sustainable assistance.      (DEVELOPMENT * “AID INDUSTRY”: NEW PLAYERS)
 
*Capacity Development in Practice.  Edited by Jan Ubels, Naa-Aku Acquaye-Baddoo and Alan Fowler.  London & Sterling VA: Earthscan (dist by Stylus), Sept 2010/336p/$34.95pb.  The international development community values improvement of organizational capacities, yet this practice is poorly understood and regarded as a distinct specialist domain. A group of practitioners make capacity building better appreciated, more professional, and increasingly effective in achieving local, national, and international goals.                                                       (DEVELOPMENT * CAPACITY-BUILDING)
 
*Deconstructing Development Discourse: Buzzwords and Fuzzwords.  Edited by Andrea Cornwall and Deborah Eade.  Warwickshire, UK: Practical Action Publishing (dist by Stylus), Aug 2010/320p/$29.95pb.  Raises major questions on the way we think about development. Examines key terms in current development discourse, as the language of development shapes imagined worlds and justifies interventions in lives of real people.   Examines sloppy thinking and catch-all terms such as ‘civil society,’ ‘poverty reduction,’ ‘partnership,’ and empowerment.’  
(DEVELOPMENT BUZZWORDS * FUZZWORDS IN DEVELOPMENT DISCOURSE)
 
* Climate Finance: Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development.  Edited by Richard B. Stewart (Prof of Env. and Administrative Law, NYU), Benedict Kingsbury (Prof of Intl Law, NYU), and Bryce Rudyk (Center for Environmental and Land Use Law, NYU).  NY: New York U Press, March 2010, 352p, $25pb. (www.climatefinance.org).   Preventing risks of severe damage from climate change requires enormous amounts of public and private investment to limit emissions, while promoting green growth in developing countries.  Attention has focused on emissions limitations commitments and architectures, but the crucial issue of mobilizing and governing the necessary financial resources has received too little attention.  The 36 essays show how a complex mix of public funds, private investment through carbon markets, and structured incentives is needed.  This requires national and global regulation of cap-and-trade and offset markets, forest and energy policy, international development funding, international trade law, and coordinated tax policy.
(DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE * CLIMATE CHANGE FINANCE)
 
* Foresight for Smart Globalization: Accelerating and Enhancing Pro-Poor Development Opportunities (Special Issue).  Edited by Clement Bezold (Chair, Institute for Alternative Futures, Alexandria VA), Claudia Juech (Managing Director of Research, Rockefeller Foundation, NYC) and Evan S. Michelson (Senior Research Associate, RF/NYC).  Foresight, 11:4, 2009/85p (www.emeraldinsight.com); 36p Oct 09 IAF/RF Summary Report available free at www.altfutures.com.  Papers from a March 2009 workshop held at the RF conference facilities in Bellagio, Italy.  Topics include foresight and anticipatory governance (by Leon S. Fuerth, former advisor to Al Gore), pro-poor energy responses to climate change (e.g. targeted subsidies to shift consumption patterns, microfinance, integrated policy approaches), pro-poor applications of science and technology (on foresight studies by RAND, the Millennium Project, and the APEC Center for Technology Foresight), and resilient pro-poor economic governance.  Recommends fostering national foresight capacity (foresight seen as “an important set of silo-busting tools” and as “systems thinking that forges paths for action while embracing complexity”), modeling inequity more explicitly, and large-scale participatory approaches. [Also see World Future Review, 1:6, 80-85 for long review of Summary Report.] (DEVELOPMENT * PRO-POOR DEVELOPMENT * FORESIGHT AND DEVELOPMENT * METHODS)
 
* The Plundered Planet: Why We Must—and How We Can—Manage Nature for Global Prosperity.  Paul Collier (Prof of Economics, Oxford U).  NY: Oxford U Press, May 2010/224p/$24.95.  Author of The Bottom Billion (Oxford, 2007; FS *29:12/472) and former director of World Bank development research addresses the global mismanagement of nature as a matter of planetary emergency.  Proposes a series of international standards that would help poor countries rich in natural assets better manage these resources, policy changes that would raise world food supply, and the need for alternatives to carbon trading.                                               (DEVELOPMENT; ENVIRONMENT)
 
* The Idea of Justice.   Amartya Sen (University Prof, Harvard U). Cambridge: Harvard UP-Belknap Press, Sep-09/304p/$29.95. Author of Development as Freedom and many other books argues that the idea of justice plays a real role in how people live, but the prevailing theory of social justice in a perfectly just society ignores practical realities. Rather, a focus on what is “more” or “less” just is needed.                                                                                          (DEVELOPMENT * JUSTICE)
 
* Global Monitoring Report 2009: A Development Emergency. World Bank. Washington: World Bank Publications, Apr-09/256p/$29.95. Provides a development perspective on the global economic crisis, assessing impacts on developing countries, setting out priorities for policy response by LDCs and the international community, and suggesting ways in which the private sector can be better mobilized to support development goals in the aftermath of the crisis.       (DEVELOPMENT * ECONOMIC CRISIS)
 
* A World of Difference: Encountering and Contesting Development. Eric Sheppard (Prof of Geography and Assoc Director, Interdisc. Center for the Study of Global Change, U of Minnesota) et al. NY: Guilford Publications, Year 2009/665p/$60. Textbook on the nature and causes of global inequality, contemporary approaches to economic development. Chapters describe differentiated ways of knowing (measuring and mapping development, colonial encounters, neoliberal globalization), differentiated livelihoods (contested environments, challenges to rural livelihood, managing tropical ecosystems), and differentiated social relations encountering global strategies (trading primary commodities, mining, transnational production, global finance markets, etc).                          (DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW)
 
* One Billion Rising: Law, Land and the Alleviation of Global Poverty. Edited by Roy L. Prosterman (Prof Emeritus of Law, U of Washington; founder, Rural Development Institute), Robert Mitchell (RDI), and Tim Hanstad (president, RDI). Amsterdam U Press (dist by U of Chicago Press), Aug 2009/450p/$39.95pb. Most of the world’s 1.4 billion poorest people are still rural, and the vast majority of these populations lack ownership of—and rights to—the land that forms their principal source of livelihood. Land reform and related legal work have transformed the lives of millions of families, but not all such efforts at pro-poor development have succeeded; lawyers from RDI assess land tenure reform efforts around the world. (DEVELOPMENT * LAND REFORM * POVERTY AND LAND REFORM)
 
* Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World. Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart. NY: Oxford UP, Oct 2009/272p/$16.95pb. Two former World Bank officials and UN advisors argue for a reorientation in the international response to create capable states. First published in May 2008 (254p/$24.95), this paperback edition adds a new preface.  (WORLD POLITICS * FAILED STATES)
 
 
* Climate Change and Global Poverty: A Billion Lives in the Balance? Edited by Lael Brainard (VP and director, Brookings Global Economy and Development program), Abigail Jones (Brookings Global), and Nigel Purvis (Climate Advisors). Washington: Brookings Institution Press, March 2009/250p/$22.95pb. Climate change will inflict damage on every continent, but will hit the poor especially hard, impeding or reversing hard-fought human development claims as new threats emerge to food, water, health, etc.                                                                        (CLIMATE CHANGE * DEVELOPMENT)
 
* Just Give Money to the Poor: The Development Revolution from the Global South. Joseph Hanlon (Open U), Armando Barrientos (World Poverty Institute, U of Manchester), and David Hulme (WPI/UofM). Kumarian Press, April 2010/288p/$24.95pb. Amid all the complex theories about causes and solutions to poverty, one idea is basic: researchers have found again and again that cash transfers given to significant portions of the population transform the lives of recipients, who use the money wisely to start a business, feed families, or send a child to school. This quiet revolution bypasses governments and NGOs, letting the poor decide how to use their money.                                    (DEVELOPMENT)
 
Email Newsletter icon, E-mail Newsletter icon, Email List icon, E-mail List icon Sign up for our Email Newsletter
For Email Marketing you can trust