Human Rights
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** Global Corruption Report: Education. Edited by Transparency International. Foreword by Navanethem Pillay (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights). London & NY: Earthscan from Routledge, Sept 2013, 418p, $59.95pb (also as e-book; www.routledge.com/9780415535496).Transparency International’s flagship publication focuses this year on education and research. It presents 67 articles commissioned from experts in the fields of corruption and education, from universities, think-tanks, business, civil society and international organizations. Education is a fundamental human right, and a major driver of individual and social development. But it is particularly prone to corruption—the abuse of entrusted power for private gain—due to the high stakes of educational opportunity and the large sums allocated to fund it. When expectations for success involve corruption, the rules learned by young people are likely to extend from schools and colleges into every other sector of society that they subsequently enter. Corruption in Schools can include procurement in construction, “shadow schools,” absenteeism, “ghost teachers,” diversion of resources intended for textbooks and supplies, bribery in access to education, buying of grades, nepotism in teacher appointments, sexual exploitation, and fake diplomas. Corruption in Higher Education can mirror problems of schools. But they can also include payments in recruitment and admissions, nepotism in tenured postings, bribery in grading and campus accommodations, political and corporate undue influence in research, plagiarism, “ghost authorship,” and editorial misconduct in academic journals. Chapters address such topics as international standards to realize the right of education, education sector procurement, governance instruments to combat corruption in higher education, combating financial fraud in higher education, transparency in US higher education job placement data (especially a problem in law schools), corruption in the academic career, impacts of globalization on the academic profession, scientific research integrity, identifying priorities for intervention, public expenditure tracking in education, testing new tools for accountability, private civil actions as a powerful tool in fighting corruption, encouraging citizen reporting, making oversight participatory, and much more. Concludes that “There are no simple remedies for tackling corruption in the education sector,” and strategies need to be tailored to national contexts. This report “therefore serves as a reference of adaptable tools and solutions for your school, university, locality, district and country. It is a call to action to governments, business, teachers and academics, students and researchers, parents and citizens the world over to reclaim education from the scourge of corruption. Future generations deserve no less.” (p.xxiii) [NOTE: Authoritative coverage of a very wide range of corrupt education-related activities in both developing and developed countries (including Germany, the UK, and US), with linkage to the broader concern of human rights.] (EDUCATION * HIGHER EDUCATION * HUMAN RIGHTS * DEVELOPMENT * CORRUPTION AND EDUCATION)

 

* Health and Human Rights: Basic International Documents (Third Edition). Edited by Stephen P. Marks (Prof of Health and Human Rights; Director, Dept of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health). Cambridge MA: FXB Center for Health and Human Health (dist by Harvard UP), Feb 2013, 568p, $28.95. This edition has been updated and expanded to provide the practitioner, scholar, and advocate with access to the most basic instruments of international law and policy that express the values of human rights for advancing health. Topics include professional ethics; research and experimentation; bioethics and biotechnology; the right to health; the right to life; freedom from torture; war crimes; crimes against humanity and genocide; the right to an adequate standard of living; women and reproductive health; children; persons with disabilities; the rights of other vulnerable groups; infectious diseases; business, trade, and intellectual property; non-communicable diseases; the right to a clean environment; and sustainable development. [Note: Beginning with Volume 15, HUP will become the publisher of Health and Human Rights: An International Journal (www.hhrjournal.org) founded in 1994 by Jonathan Mann and now edited by Paul Farmer, Chair of the Dept of Global Health at Harvard Medical School. Also see Reimagining Global Health: An Introduction (U of California Press, Aug 2013, 436p, $34.95pb), edited by Paul Farmer et al.] (HUMAN RIGHTS AND HEALTH)

 

* Green Governance: Ecological Survival, Human Rights, and the Law of the Commons. Burns H. Weston (U of Iowa) and David Bollier (Commons Strategies Group). NY: Cambridge U Press, Jan 2013, 384p, $99. We have reached a point in history where we are in grave danger of destroying Earth's life-sustaining capacity. But our attempts to protect natural ecosystems are increasingly ineffective because our very conception of the problem is limited; we treat "the environment" as its own separate realm, taking for granted prevailing but outmoded conceptions of economics, national sovereignty, and international law. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment. Proposes a new architecture of environmental law and public policy that is practical and theoretically sound. (GREEN GOVERNANCE * ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS * GLOBAL COMMONS MOVEMENT)

 

* On Global Justice. Mathias Risse (Prof of Philosophy and Public Policy, JFK School of Government, Harvard U). Princeton NJ: Princeton U Press, Oct 2013, 480p, $45. Debates about global justice have traditionally fallen into two camps. Statists believe that principles of justice can only be held among those who share a state, while those who fall outside this realm are merely owed charity. In contrast, Cosmopolitans believe that justice applies equally among all human beings. Stressing humanity’s collective ownership of the earth, Risse offers a new theory of global distributive justice—pluralist internationalism—where different principles of justice apply in different contexts. Especially demanding redistributive principles apply among those who share a country, but those who share a country also have obligations of justice to those who do not because of a universal humanity, common political and economic orders, and a linked global trading system. Risse’s inquiries about ownership of the earth give insights into immigration, obligations to future generations, and obligations arising from climate change. Topics include fairness in trade, responsibilities of the WTO, intellectual property rights, labor rights, whether there ought to be states at all, global inequality, human rights, etc. (GLOBAL JUSTICE * FUTURE GENERATIONS * HUMAN RIGHTS)

 

* Rights Gone Wrong: How Law Corrupts the Struggle for Equality.  Richard Thompson Ford  (Prof of Law, Stanford U).  NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Nov 2011, 272p, $27.    Both the progressive left and the colorblind right are guilty of the same error: defining discrimination too abstractly and condemning it too categorically.  Many progressives insist that any policies and practices that disadvantage people on the basis of race, sex, age, or disability should be illegal.  Many conservatives insist that the Constitution is colorblind, and the government should thus never take race into account under any circumstances.  Both left and right reject reasonable, prudent, and innocent distinctions.  Judges and government officials thus concentrate on eliminating even trivial forms of discrimination, at the expense of more effective means of social justice like expanding opportunities for the poor.  Ford calls for a more “nuanced” approach to civil rights, and a return to thoughtful and pragmatic judges who distinguish justified from unjustified acts of discrimination, rejecting selfish or perverse claims of rights gone wrong while protecting people from serious indignities.  “Like an overprescribed antibiotic that kills beneficial organisms, the civil rights approach to social justice, once a miracle cure, now threatens to do more harm than good.”   (SOCIETY * CIVIL RIGHTS * INEQUALITY * DISCRIMINATION AND LAW)

Children without a State: A Global Human Rights Challenge.  Edited by Jacqueline Bhabha (Lecturer, Harvard Law School and JFK School of Government). Foreword by Mary Robinson.  Cambridge: MIT Press, March 2011 / 408p / $32.00. Children are particularly at risk from statelessness: 36% of all births worldwide are not registered, leaving >48 million children under the age of five with no legal identity and no formal claim on any state. Millions of other children are born stateless or become undocumented as a result of migration. The human rights repercussions range from dramatic abuses (detention and deportation) to social marginalization (lack of access to education and health care). Chapters focus on Palestinian children in Israel, undocumented young people in the US, unaccompanied child migrants in Spain, Roma children in Italy, irregular internal child migrants in China, and children in mixed legal/illegal families in the US. (CHILDREN AND HUMAN RIGHTS * HUMAN RIGHTS AND CHILDREN * STATELESS CHILDREN)
 
The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen  (Third Edition).  Paul Gordon Lauren (Regents Prof, U of Montana).  Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania Press, Feb 2011 / 480p / $34.95.  On the truly universal nature of the human rights movement and the dramatic transformation of a world patterned by centuries of human rights abuses into a global community that recognizes that the way governments treat their own people is a matter of international concern and sets the goal of human rights “for all peoples and all nations”. This new edition Includes scholarship on the new Human Rights Council, International Criminal Court, Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, terrorism and torture, globalization and modern technology, and activists in NGOs. (HUMAN RIGHTS * WORLD FUTURES)
 
Empire of Humanity: A History of HumanitarianismMichael Barnett (University Prof of International Affairs, George Washington U).  Ithaca NY: Cornell U Press, April 2011 / 296p / $29.95.  Ties the past to present and describes humanitarianism’s distinct global ages – imperial, postcolonial, and liberal – connecting the antislavery and missionary movements in the 19th century with today’s peace-building missions, Cold War interventions in Biafra and Cambodia, and post-Cold War humanitarian interventions in the Great Lakes of Africa and the Balkans. Discusses creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1893, emergence of the major international humanitarian organizations of the 20th century, and the conceptual division within humanitarianism between the emergency camp that wants to save lives and nothing else and the alchemist camp that wants to remove the causes of suffering. Humanitarianism has developed a metropolis of global institutions of care, the governance of which exercises power over the very individuals it hopes to emancipate. Contrary to the view that humanitarianism is a symbol of moral progress, Barnett contends that it has undergone its most impressive gains after moments of radical inhumanity. (HUMANITARIANISM: HISTORY * WORLD FUTURES * HUMAN RIGHTS)
 
 Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of Political Right and Civil LibertiesFreedom House.  Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Jan 2011 / 446p / $49.95.  Published annually since 1972, this comparative assessment provides survey ratings and narrative reports on 193 countries and a group of 15 select territories. This is “the fifth consecutive year in which global freedom suffered a decline”. The report also highlights “increasing truculence of the world’s most powerful authoritarian regimes.” [Note: A very detailed survey, dividing countries into categories of Free, Partly Free, and Not Free. Each 3-8 page country report describes population, income per capita, life expectancy, religious and ethnic groups, political rights, and civil liberties rated on a 1-7 scale, with a ratings timeline for the past 10 years. Also see the Freedom of the Press annual survey by Freedom House, which reports stagnation and declines worldwide over the past 10 years. (HUMAN RIGHTS * FREEDOM IN THE WORLD REPORT * WORLD FUTURES)
 
2048. Humanity’s Agreement to Live TogetherJ. Kirk Boyd (School of Law, UC-Berkeley; director, 2048 Project; www.2048.berkeley.edu).  San Francisco CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, April 2010 / 222p / $15.95.  The UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948; although deeply inspiring, its provisions are not enforceable and its promise has not been fulfilled. Proposes an enforceable International Convention in place by the 100th anniversary of the UDHR, a guarantee of basic human rights that safeguards five fundamental freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear, and freedom for the environment. Anticipates and responds to objections—that the regime would violate state sovereignty, prove expensive, and be culturally insensitive. Describes specific actions that can materialize worldwide enforceable human rights. (also as PDF e-book, $13.97).  See full review at GFB Book of the Month June 2010. (WORLD GOVERNANCE * 2048 PROJECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS * HUMAN RIGHTS UPDATE PROPOSED)
 
The Atlas of Human Rights: Mapping Violations of Freedom around the GlobeAndrew Fagan (deputy director, Human Rights Centre, U of Essex).  Berkeley CA: U of California Press, Aug 2010 / 128p / $21.95.  In the post 9/11 world, governments are using the threat of terrorism to justify tightening national security and restricting basic human rights. Addresses the implications of this trend, and judicial violations or legal restrictions that permit state-sponsored torture, indefinite detention, capital punishment, and police brutality. Charts both the progress and the limitation of free expression and media censorship, and details the geographic status of sexual freedom, racism, religious freedom, rights of the disabled, women’s rights, sex slavery, and rights of the child. (ATLAS OF HUMAN RIGHTS * HUMAN RIGHTS ATLAS)
 
International Human Rights Law: An IntroductionDavid Weissbrodt (Prof of Law, U of Minnesota) and Connie de la Vega (Prof of Law, U of San Francisco).  Philadelphia PA: U of Pennsylvania Press, Aug 2010 / 448p / $45.00.  An overview of the development of human rights as a domain of international law from early philosophical and religious ideas and theories of natural law to modern formulations. Provides summaries of the substantive principles of and practices relevant to self-determination, equality, life, slavery, torture, fair trial, detention, privacy, health, food, housing, and clothing, as well as emerging rights such as sustainable development, environmental health, peace, and security from terrorism. Also describes UN human right procedures, criminal procedures, regional systems, and national institutions and processes. (HUMAN RIGHTS LAW: INTRODUCTION)
 
Human Rights in Labor and Employment Relations: International and Domestic Perspectives.  Edited by James A. Gross (Prof of Labor Rights, Cornell U) and Lance Compa (School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell U).  Cornell U Press-ILR Press, August 2009 / 236p / $24.95.  The concept of human rights at work has advanced significantly in the last decade. These essays show how the promotion and protection of human rights at workplaces worldwide posit a new set of value that challenge every orthodoxy in the employment relations field, and even the underlying premises of labor and employment systems. Topics include worker health and safety, child labor, freedom of association, migrant and forced labor, obligations of employers, workplace discrimination, and workers with disabilities. (WORK AND HUMAN RIGHTS * HUMAN RIGHTS AND WORK)
 
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