* Following the Proceeds of Environmental Crime: Fish, Forests and Filthy Lucre. Edited by Gregory Rose (U of Wollongong, Australia). NY: Routledge, June 2014, 256p, $135 (www.routledge.com/9780415532396 ). Significant volumes of natural resources are illegally harvested and their proceeds laundered in the Asia-Pacific region, fostering corruption and undermining environmental governance. Looks at ways to tackle illegal fishing and logging in the region by the use of cooperative legal measures, particularly anti-money laundering and confiscation of proceeds techniques. Themes include: the nature of transnational environmental crime; patterns in laundering of illicit fish and forest products; networks for distribution of illicit products; weaknesses in current systems for assurance of the legality of products; and international legal cooperation to enforce anti-money laundering laws in relation to illicit products. (ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME * FORESTS * FISHERIES)
* Marine Biotechnology: Enabling Solutions for Ocean Productivity and Sustainability. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: OECD, Sept 2013, 116p, $33 (e-book). Biodiversity in the oceans "offers manifold possibilities for development and exploitation." Marine biotechnology has the potential to contribute to economic and social prosperity, through food production, new sources of renewable energy (i.e. algal biofuels), and products for health and well-being. Presents scientific and technological tools at the center of a renewed interest in marine biotechnology and examines how these advances are improving our understanding of marine life and facilitating access to, and study of, marine organisms and ecosystems. But a governance framework is needed to enable development of marine bioresources in a sustainable manner, and it would be most effective at the international level. New indicators are also needed to measure the impact of investment and government policies. (OCEAN SUSTAINABILITY * MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY)
* Transport, the Environment and Security: Making the Connection. Rae Zimmerman (Prof of Urban Planning, Rutgers U) and Ralph Buehler (Asst Prof of Urban Affairs and Planning, Virginia Tech). Cambridge MA: MIT Press, Nov 2012, 368p, $27.95. Bicycling should not be limited to those who are highly trained, extremely fit, and daring enough to battle traffic on busy roads. Bicycling in cities is booming for health and environmental benefits, time and cost savings, more and better bike lanes and paths, innovative bike sharing programs, and the sheer fun of riding. The authors offer a guide to urban cycling renaissance, reporting on cycling trends and policies in large and small cities of North America, Europe, and Australia. They cover such topics as cycling safety, cycling infrastructure provisions (including bikeways and bike parking), the wide range of bike designs and bike equipment, integration of cycling with public transportation, and promoting cycling for women and children. Successful promotion of city cycling depends on coordinating infrastructure, programs, and government policies. (CITIES * CYCLING IN CITIES * TRANSPORTATION)
* American Environmental Policy: Beyond Gridlock (Updated and Expanded Edition). Christopher McGrory Klyza (Prof of Public Policy and Environmental Studies, Middlebury College) and David J. Sousa (Prof of Politics and Government, U of Puget Sound). Cambridge MA: MIT Press, Sept 2013, 456p, $32pb. The “golden era” of American environmental law-making in the 1960s and 1970s saw 22 pieces of major environmental legislation (including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act), passed by bipartisan majorities in Congress and signed into law by presidents of both parties. But since then partisanship, the dramatic movement of Republicans to the right, and political brinksmanship have led to legislative gridlock on environmental issues. The longstanding legislative stalemate at the national level has forced environmental policymaking onto other pathways. Klyza and Sousa identify and analyze five alternative policy paths, which they illustrate with case studies from 1990 to the present: 1) “appropriations politics” in Congress; 2) executive authority; 3) the role of the courts; 4) “next-generation” collaborative experiments; and 5) policymaking at the state and local levels. Despite legislative gridlock, the legacy of 1960s and 1970s policies has created an enduring “green state” rooted in statutes, bureaucratic routines, and public expectations. The updated edition features a new chapter discussing environmental policy developments from 2006 to 2012. (ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY)
* Green Governance: Ecological Survival, Human Rights, and the Law of the Commons. Burns H. Weston (U of Iowa) and David Bollier (Commons Strategies Group). NY: Cambridge U Press, Jan 2013, 384p, $99. We have reached a point in history where we are in grave danger of destroying Earth's life-sustaining capacity. But our attempts to protect natural ecosystems are increasingly ineffective because our very conception of the problem is limited; we treat "the environment" as its own separate realm, taking for granted prevailing but outmoded conceptions of economics, national sovereignty, and international law. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment. Proposes a new architecture of environmental law and public policy that is practical and theoretically sound. (GREEN GOVERNANCE * ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS * GLOBAL COMMONS MOVEMENT)
* Environmental Crime and Corruption in Russia (Transnational Crime and Corruption Series). Edited by Sally Stoecker and Ramziya Shakirova (both, George Mason U, Virginia). NY: Routledge, July 2013, 224p, $155 (www.routledge.com/9780415698702). Presents a wide-ranging assessment of the environmental problems faced by Russia, and of the crime and corruption which contribute to them. The attitude of the Russian government seems to view environmental protection as something for rich countries, or something to be postponed until Russia is on the same economic footing as wealthier Scandinavian and western European countries. Concludes, gloomily, that the problems are getting worse and that little is being done to tackle them. (ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME * RUSSIA)
* EcoMind: Changing the Way We Think, to Create the World We Want. Frances Moore Lappe (cofounder, Food First: The Institute for Food and Development Policy, the Small Planet Institute, the Small Planet Fund; contributor, Huffington Post and Alternet). NY: Nation Books (dist by Perseus Books), Apr 2013, $16.99pb. (first published, Sept 2011). Author of Diet for a Small Planet and 16 other books states that the biggest challenge to human survival isn’t our fossil fuel dependency, melting glaciers, or other calamities. Rather, it’s our faulty way of thinking about these environmental crises that robs us of power. Lappé addresses seven common “thought traps”—from limits to growth to the failings of democracy— that belie what we now know about nature, including our own, and offers contrasting “thought leaps” that reveal our hidden power. (ENVIRONMENT * METHODS * ECOMIND)
** Global Environment Outlook 5 (GEO-5): Environment for the Future We Want. UN Environment Programme. Early Warning and Assessment Technical Report. NY: United Nations Publications, Jan 2013, 548p, $80pb. The currently observed changes to the Earth System are unprecedented in human history. Efforts to slow the rate or extent of change – including enhanced resource efficiency and mitigation measures – have resulted in moderate successes but have not succeeded in reversing adverse environmental changes. Neither the scope of these nor their speed has abated in the past five years. As human pressures on the Earth System accelerate, several critical global, regional and local thresholds are close or have been exceeded. Once these have been passed, abrupt and possibly irreversible changes to the life-support functions of the planet are likely to occur, with significant adverse implications for human well-being. GEO builds on the assessment findings of its predecessor and draws from lessons learned. (ENVIRONMENT * SECURITY)
* Harvesting the Biosphere: What We Have Taken from Nature. Vaclav Smil (Distinguished Prof, Faculty of Environment, U of Manitoba, Canada). Cambridge MA: MIT Press, Feb 2013, 312p, $29. A long-term, planet-wide perspective on human-caused environmental change. The biosphere—the Earth’s thin layer of life—dates from nearly four billion years ago, when the first simple organisms appeared. Many species have exerted enormous influence on the biosphere’s character and productivity, but none has transformed the Earth in so many ways and on such a scale as Homo sapiens. Smil offers an interdisciplinary and quantitative account of human claims on the biosphere’s stores of living matter, from prehistory to the present day. He examines all harvests—from prehistoric man’s hunting of megafauna to modern crop production—and all uses of harvested biomass, including energy, food, and raw materials. Without harvesting of the biomass, there would be no story of human evolution and advancing civilization. But, at the same time, the increasing extent and intensity of present-day biomass harvests is changing the very foundations of civilization’s well-being. (BIOMASS HARVEST * ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: LONG-TERM)
* Green Grabbing: A New Appropriation of Nature (Series: Critical Agrarian Studies / Journal of Peasant Studies). Edited by James Fairhead (Chair in Social Anthropology, U of Sussex), Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones (both Fellows, Institute of Development Studies, U of Sussex). NY: Routledge, April 2013, 416p, $155. Across the world, ecosystems are for sale. The appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. A vigorous debate on ‘land grabbing’ already highlights instances where ‘green’ credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel. Environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs. Green grabs may be driven by biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services or ecotourism, for example. Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances. The text draws together 17 original cases from African, Asian, and Latin American settings. Addresses the extent and ways that ‘green grabs’ constitute new forms of appropriation of nature, the political and discursive dynamics that underpin ‘green grabs,’ how and when appropriations on the ground emerge out of circulations of green capital, and implications for the ecologies, landscapes, livelihoods, agrarian social relations, and restructuring rights and authority in whose inteRESTS. (DEVELOPMENT *GREEN GRABBING * LAND GRABS * ENVIRONMENT)
* Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing. Frank R. Spellman (Retired US Naval Officer; retired Asst Prof of Environmental Health, Old Dominion U, Norfolk, VA). CRC Press (dist by Routledge), Sept 2012, 477p, $129.95. There is a strong need for innovation and the development of viable renewable energy sources. Recent technological advances allow natural gas supplies—previously believed inaccessible or nonexistent—to be discovered, mined, and processed for both industrial and consumer use. The new technology, a controversial process that is alternatively called hydraulic fracturing, fracking, fracing, or hydrofracking, has greatly expanded US natural gas production. Presents all aspects of hydraulic fracturing used to extract natural gas, along with gas exploration and production in various shale fields. (ENERGY * NATURAL GAS * FRACKING IMPACTS)
* Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues. Rita Floyd (Fellow in Conflict and Security, Department of Pol Sci, U of Birmingham, UK) and Richard Matthew (Prof of Social Ecology and Social Science, U of California, Irvine; founding Director, Center for Unconventional Security Affairs). NY: Routledge, Dec 2012, 302p, $46.95pb (also as e-book). For over 20 years, considerable research and debate have focused on clarifying or disputing linkages between various forms of environmental change and various understandings of security. At one extreme lie skeptics who contend that the linkages are weak or even non-existent; they are simply attempts to harness the resources of the security arena to an environmental agenda. At the other extreme lie those who believe that these linkages may be the most important drivers of security in the 21st century; indeed, the very future of humankind may be at stake. Contributions from a range of disciplines present a critical and comprehensive overview of the research and debate linking environmental factors to security while providing a framework for representing and understanding key areas of intellectual convergence and disagreement. Sections focus on 1) how environmental change and security have been linked; 2) how climate change, energy, water, food, population, and development feature in these linkages; 3) why this subfield of security studies is important and what it holds for the future. (SECURITY * ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY)
** Re|Source 2050. Flourishing from Prosperity: Faster and Further. Angela Wilkinson et al. (Smith School Futures Team). Oxford UK: Smith School of Enterprise and Environment, U of Oxford, Jan 2013, 83p (download at www.smithschool.ox.ac.uk). Consumption habits of the West have driven demand for food, energy, and water, compounded by growth in China, India, Brazil, and Russia. Middle-class consumers are expected to reach 4.5 billion by 2030. New resource-efficient systems and patterns of production are needed. This third World Forum of the Smith School, an event attended by >200 heads of state and business leaders (most from the financial and investor communities), focused on growing concerns about prosperity, resources, population, and climate. Rather than focus on forecasting, two frames enable a new set of questions: Growth (moving faster with increasing efficiency) and Health (moving further by aiming for resiliency and dynamic complexity). Given the imperative that “we must rethink the link between economic development and a viable environment,” the Growth and Health frames are then applied to Water, Energy (Growth is supply-driven; Health balances supply and demand), Climate, Land (Growth manages land more efficiently for food and fuel; Health takes a more inclusive approach), Infrastructure (Health fosters more local initiatives that are resilient, flexible, and frugal in the long term), Business Models, Economy (Health promotes evolutionary-based theory, complexity economics, and moving to a “circular economy”), and Leadership. Four Scenarios for the Growth Frame are sketched: 1) Lean, But Mean (high efficiency gain, but global temperatures is still “far more than 2oC”); 2) Broader Gains (strict environmental regulation in developing new abundances); 3) Fat and Unfit (all boats sinking by 2050 in a volatile world, despite decarbonization and eco-efficiency); 4) Scramble for Survival (an extended global recession; more droughts, floods, and famines; subsistence for many). In contrast, four other Scenarios for the Health Frame are provided: 1) Networked Communities (smart cities and new models of greener growth); 2) Inclusive Globalization (systems management coordinated at the global level); 3) Walled Cities (competition between global cities for resources); 4) Worlds Apart (more social inequality; resource security only for the wealth few). In sum, “Re|thinking the world as a complex, adaptive system is analogous to the 16th-century adjustment in which humanity began accepting the world as round rather than flat.” (p.13) These different futures frames raise different sets of nightmare scenarios: “within Growth, the world of health can threaten a kind of green totalitarianism; within Health, the world of Growth looks like a form of capitalist feudalism” (p.14), with the 1% taking still more resources from the 99%. In a Growth frame, we can increase efficiency by focusing on what we can do well now, because we “don’t have time to wait around for a new global ecological myth to take over from the global economic myth within which we operate.” But a Health frame is better for more people. [NOTE: Very dense, leading-edge re-framing for business leaders. The “Health” frame is a fresh approach to the population/resources issue.] (ECONOMICS: GROWTH VS. HEALTH * BUSINESS AND ENVIRONMENT * RESOURCES)
** Global Environment Outlook 5: Environment for the Future We Want (GEO-5). UN Environmental Programme. NY: United Nations, June 2012, 525p, $80 (also 20p. Summary for Policy Makers; www.unep.org/geo). “Currently observed changes to the Earth System are unprecedented in human history.” Efforts to slow the rate or extent of change have resulted in moderate successes, but have not reversed the scope or speed of change. Significant progress has been made in only 4 of 90 environmental goals (as concerns protecting the ozone layer, removing lead from fuels, better access to water, and research to reduce marine pollution. Little or no progress was found for 24 goals, including climate change, fish stocks, desertification, and drought. “As human pressures on the Earth System accelerate, several critical global, regional, and local thresholds are close or have been exceeded. Once these have been passed, abrupt and possibly irreversible change to the life-support functions of the planet are likely to occur, with significant adverse implications for human well-being.” Examples at a regional scale are the collapse of freshwater lake and estuary systems due to eutrophication, and accelerated and irreversible melting of glaciers and the Arctic ice-sheet. In turn, this will lead to increasing frequency and severity of floods and droughts, significant human health impacts, sea level rise, and substantial biodiversity loss affecting provision of ecosystem services. Chapters discuss drivers (population growth, consumption, urbanization), the atmosphere, land, water, biodiversity, chemicals and waste, an Earth System perspective, data needs, Africa, Asia/Pacific, Europe, Latin America/Caribbean, North America, West Asia, regional summaries, scenarios, sustainability transformation, and necessary global responses. [Also see OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction (March 2012, 350p), providing similar warnings about temperature rise, biodiversity, water, and health.] (ENVIRONMENT * WATER * CLIMATE CHANGE)
* OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Germany 2012. OECD. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, May 2012, 162p, $49 (e-book). Over the last decade, Germany has continued to promote ambitious environmental policies. While experiencing robust economic growth during most of the 2000s, Germany has made further progress in reducing the carbon, energy, and resource intensities of its economy, bringing down emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and improving waste and water management. In some areas, such as water and air quality and biodiversity, progress has nevertheless not been sufficient to reach domestic and international objectives. Overall, Germany’s environmental policies enjoy strong public support, and citizens are relatively satisfied with their environmental quality of life. Key developments: 1) there has been a shift from sector-specific to more comprehensive and cross-cutting policies, including development of a National Sustainable Development Strategy and important initiatives on biodiversity, climate change, energy and resource efficiency; 2) Germany used taxation policy to pursue environmental objectives, and made progress in removing fiscal incentives that can encourage environmentally harmful activities; 3) Germany’s environmental innovation performance has been supported by a strong national innovation framework, a broad industrial base, a high level of participation in international trade, and strict environmental regulations; and 4) Germany managed to considerably reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions over the 2000s and will meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol exclusively through domestic measures. [Note: OECD Environmental Performance Reviews seek to improve governments’ environmental performance, individually and collectively; it is supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and covers all OECD member countries, and selected partner countries.] (ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE * SUSTAINABILITY * GREEN GROWTH * GERMANY)
*An Ecology of Happiness. Eric Lambin (Prof of Geography, U of Louvain, Belgium). Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago IL: U of Chicago Press, Oct 2012, 192p, $26. Our gas-guzzling cars are warming the planet, the pesticides and fertilizers from farms are turning rivers toxic, and the earth has run out of space for the mountains of unrecycled waste our daily consumption has left in its wake. We are aware of our impact—as humans and as a society—on the natural world but incognizant of the impact on us and our well-being. The natural environment is an essential part of our happiness. Lambin’s interdisciplinary work addesses such questions as: 1) To what extent do we need nature for our well-being? 2) How does environmental degradation affect our happiness? 3) What can be done to protect the environment and increase our well-being at the same time? Case studies from Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America make the case for correlation between healthy ecosystems and happy humans. “There may be no better reason to value and protect the health of the planet than for our own personal well-being.” (ENVIRONMENT/RESOURCES * HAPPINESS AND HEALTHY ECOSYSTEMS)
* Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered. Edited by Frank Biermann (Prof of Pol Sci and Environmental Policy, VU University Amsterdam and Visiting Prof of Earth System Governance, Lund U, Sweden) and Philipp Pattberg (Assoc Prof of Transnational Governance, Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University). Cambridge MA: MIT Press, Sept 2012, 320p, $25pb. The synthesis of a 10-year Global Governance Project carried out by 13 leading European research institutions. Three major trends in global governance are identified: 1) emergence of nonstate actors; 2) new mechanisms of transnational cooperation; 3) increasingly segmented and overlapping layers of authority. Other topics include international bureaucracies, global corporations, transnational networks of scientists, novel mechanisms of global governance, transnational environmental regimes, public-private partnerships, market-based arrangements, and the fragmentation of authority (both vertically among supranational, international, national, and subnational layers, and horizontally among different parallel rule-making systems). (WORLD FUTURES * GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE)
* Pricing the Planet’s Future: The Economics of Discounting in an Uncertain World. Christian Gollier (Prof of Economics, U of Toulouse; director, Toulouse School of Economics). Princeton NJ: Princeton U Press, Dec 2012, 296p, $35. Our path of economic development has generated a growing list of environmental problems, including climate change, disposal of nuclear waste, exhaustion of natural resources, loss of biodiversity, and polluted land, air, and water. These environmental problems raise the crucial challenge of determining what we should and should not do for future generations and sustainable development. Related policy debates include the appropriate level of public debt, investment in public infrastructure and education, and the level of funding for R&D and pension benefits. Gollier provides a simple framework to organize the debate on what we should do for the future, based on the discount rate—the minimum rate of return required from an investment project to make it desirable to implement. He also outlines the various arguments that favor using a smaller discount rate for more distant cash flows. (SUSTAINABILITY * DISCOUNT RATE * PUBLIC INVESMENT * ENVIRONMENT * PRICING RESOURCES)
** OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction. OECD. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, March 2012, 350p, $112. Humanity has witnessed unprecedented growth and prosperity in the past decades, with the size of the world economy more than tripling and population increasing by over 3 billion people since 1970. This growth, however, has been accompanied by environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. The current growth model and the mismanagement of natural assets could ultimately undermine human development. Based on joint modelling by the OECD and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, the report looks forward to 2050 to find out what demographic and economic trends might mean for the environment if the world does not adopt more ambitious green policies. Also looks at what policies could change that picture for the better. Focuses ontwo scenarios (a Baseline Scenario and a 450 Delayed Action Scenarios) and four areas – climate change, biodiversity, freshwater and health impacts of pollution – all identified by the previous Environmental Outlook to 2030 (OECD, 2008) as issues requiring urgent attention. (ENVIRONMENT * DEVELOPMENT * ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION * ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT)
* Geomorphology and Global Environmental Change. Edited by Olav Slaymaker (U of British Columbia, Vancouver), Thomas Spencer (U of Cambridge) and Christine Embleton-Hamann (Universität Wien, Austria). NY: Cambridge U Press, Jan 2012, 468p, $55pb. Chapters topics: landscape and landscape-scale processes as the unfilled niche in the global environmental change debate; mountains; lakes and lake catchments; rivers; estuaries, coastal marshes, tidal flats and coastal dunes; beaches, cliffs and deltas; coral reefs; tropical rainforests and savannas; deserts; temperate forests and rangelands; tundra and permafrost dominated taiga; ice sheets and ice caps; the Mediterranean region; landscape scale processes and global environmental change; and new agendas for the 21st century. (ENVIRONMENT * GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE * GEOMORPHOLOGY * LANDSCAPE CHANGES)
* Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. United Nations Environment Programme. NY: United Nations Publications, Feb 2011, 94p, $40. “The diversity of living things on the planet continues to be eroded as a result of human activities” and the “pressures driving the loss of biodiversity…are much worse than previously thought.” The third edition of this report produced by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) presents some stark choices for human societies and offers options to address the crisis. “Determined action to conserve biodiversity and use it sustainably will reap rich rewards,” benefiting people through better health, greater food security, and less poverty.
(BIODIVERSITY REPORT * ENVIRONMENT)
* The Plundered Planet: Why We Must – and How We Can – Manage Nature for Global Prosperity. Paul Collier (Prof of Economics, Oxford U). NY: Oxford UP, Nov 2011, 224p, $16.95pb. Proper stewardship of natural assets and liabilities is a matter of planetary urgency. The author of The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing builds on his work in developing countries to confront the global mismanagement of natural resources, and charts a course between unchecked profiteering and environmental romanticism to offer realistic and sustainable solutions to complex issues. Collier proposes 1) a series of international standards that would help poor countries rich in natural assets better manage those resources, 2) policy changes that would raise world food supply, and 3) an approach to climate change that acknowledges the benefits of industrialization while addressing the need for alternatives to carbon trading.
(ENVIRONMENT * DEVELOPMENT AND NAURAL ASSETS)
* Environmental Economics: A Very Short Introduction. Stephen Smith (Prof of Economics, University College London). NY: Oxford UP, Nov 2011, 144p, $11.95pb. Discusses pollution control, reducing environmental damage, global climate change policies, balancing environmental and economic considerations, and the form governmental policies should take.
(ENVIRONMENT * ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS * CLIMATE CHANGE)
* Global Corruption Report: Climate Change. Transparency International. London & Sterling VA: Earthscan (dist by Stylus), May 2011, 176p, $34.95pb. The first publication to explore corruption risks related to implementing climate policies and developing carbon markets. These risks include undue influence on policies and regulations, misallocation of funds, and manipulation of markets , reporting, and verification mechanisms. Covers four key areas: governance, mitigating climate change, adapting to climate change, and forestry governance.
(CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORRUPTION * CORRUPTION AND CLIMATE POLICIES * FORESTRY)
* The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in National and International Policy Making. Edited by Patrick ten Brink (Senior Fellow, Inst for European Environmental Policy, Brussels). London & Sterling VA: Earthscan (dist by Stylus), April 2011, 352p (8x10p), $99.95. Demonstrates the value of ecosystems and biodiversity to the economy, society, and individuals; highlights the urgency for strategic policy making and action at national and international levels; and presents examples of policies in action from around the world. Also explores the range of instruments to reward those offering ecosystem service benefits, to reduce the incentives of those running down our natural capital, and to offer subsidies that respond to future priorities. Two major areas of investment in natural capital are also considered: protected areas and investment in restoration. An output of TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity project led by UNEP.
(ENVIRONMENT/RESOURCES * ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION * BIODIVERSITY ECONOMICS * ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS/BIODIVERSITY PROJECT (TEEB)
* Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. Edited by Barry Sadler and six others. London & Sterling VA: Earthscan (dist by Stylus), Feb 2011, 650p, $125. Reviews SEA frameworks in the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the EU, and developing regions (Africa, Asia, Latin America, Newly Independent States). Considers SEA practice in several major sectors (energy, minerals, transport, water, development assistance, and coastal zone management), linkages between SEA and other comparable tools (special planning and environmental management), key cross-cutting issues in SEA, ways and means of SEA process and capacity development, and the shift from conventional SEA towards more integrative approaches. (ENVIRONMENT/RESOURCES *
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT * ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT)
* Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. National Research Council. Washington: National Academies Press, Sept 2010, 176p, $32pb. “The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry.” Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification, the long term consequences of which are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and services they provide to society. The NRC Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment offers several recommendations, including six key elements of a successful acidification program.
(ENVIRONMENT/RESOURCES * OCEAN ACIDIFICATION)
** America’s Environmental Report Card: Are We Making the Grade? (Second Edition). Harvey Blatt (Prof of Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew U of Jerusalem). Cambridge: MIT Press, April 2011, 376p, $19.95pb. Looks at water supplies, new concerns about water purity, the dangers of floods, infrastructure problems, the leaching of garbage buried in landfills, soil, contaminated crops, organic food, fossil fuels, alternative energy sources, controversies over nuclear energy, the increasing pace of climate change, and air pollution. Outlines workable and reasonable solutions that map the course to a sustainable future, and argues that American can lead the way to a better environment: we can afford it, and can’t afford not to. [Also see America’s Food: What You Don’t Know About What You Eat by Harvey Blatt (MIT, 2008).]
(ENVIRONMENT/RESOURCES * ENERGY * POLLUTION IN U.S. * WATER * FOOD)
* Paying for Biodiversity: Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Paris: OECD Publishing, Oct 2010, 196p, $40 (free pdf). Biodiversity and ecosystem services provide tangible benefits for society: food provisioning, water purification, genetic resources and, climate regulation. Yet biodiversity is declining worldwide and, in some areas, the loss is accelerating. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a flexible incentive-based mechanism under which the user or beneficiary of an ecosystem makes a direct payment to an individual or community whose land decisions have an impact on the ecosystem service provision. Over the past decade PES have been proliferating worldwide: there are already more than 300 programs in place today at national, regional, and local levels. Draws on more than 30 case studies to identify good practices in the design and implementation of PES programmes, and to examine their environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and financing.
(BIODIVERSITY * ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT * PAYMENTS FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES)
* Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. National Research Council. Washington: National Academies Press, 2010/175p/$32pb (www.nap.edu). Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions. The ocean absorbs a significant portion of all CO2 emissions, which moderates the rate of climate change but also causes changes in ocean chemistry, which is “changing at an unprecedented rate and magnitude,” with a demonstrated impact on many marine organisms. Long-term consequences are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems. Initial steps have been taken to develop a US ocean acidification program. A global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes.
(OCEAN ACIDIFICATION * ENVIRONMENT)
** Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures. Michael H. Smith (Australian National U; Co-Founder, The Natural Edge Project), Karlson ‘Charlie’ Hargroves (Director, TNEP), and Cheryl Desha (Deputy Directory, TNRP). Intro by Jim MacNeill. Forewords by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Rajendra Pachauri, and Jeffrey Sachs. London & Sterling VA: Earthscan, Sept 2010/405p/$39.95. In the 1987 Bruntland Commission report, Our Common Future, a new era of sustainable economic growth was advocated. New research allows a deeper understanding of how, and under what conditions, this “forceful sustainable growth” is possible. Chapter topics: securing “Our Common Future,” decoupling explained, factors that undermine or block decoupling, national strategies for decoupling, facing the unprecedented challenges of climate change, and decoupling economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss, freshwater extraction, waste production, and air pollution. [NOTE: Sophisticated and leading edge. Smith, Hargroves and Desha are co-authors of Factor Five (Earthscan, 2009), and Whole System Design (Earthscan, 2008).] (THE NATURAL EDGE PROJECT
* SUSTAINABILITY * ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABILITY * ECONOMY * ENVIRONMENT)
* Hope Is an Imperative: The Essential David Orr. David W. Orr (Distinguished Prof of Environmental Studies and Politics, Oberlin College). Foreword by Fritjof Capra. Washington DC: Island Press, Dec 2010/375p/$30pb. Collects the works of a leading champion of the environmental movement and author of six previous books, who advocates ecological literacy in higher education, ecological design, and awareness of threats to future genererations. The 33 essays include “What is Education For?”, “The Campus and The Biosphere”, and “Loving Children: A Design Problem.” An introduction describes the evolution of environmentalism. (ENVIRONMENTALISM EVOLVING * ECOLOGICAL LITERACY * DESIGN, ECOLOGICAL * FUTURE GENERATIONS * HIGHER EDUCATION: ECO-LITERACY)
* The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference. Jonathan M. Hoekstra (U of Washington; Director, Nature Conservancy Climate Change Program), Jennifer L. Molnar (Nature Conservancy), and seven others. Berkeley, CA: U of California Press, April 2010, 248p (8x11”), $49.95. Offers a guide to the state of the planet and our resource and environmental issues, featuring 79 maps and 220 color illustrations. Draws on the best of data available to provide graphics paired with informative discussion of trends across world’s terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments. Essays by international authorities outline solutions for pressing challenges. (ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL OVERVIEW * ATLAS OF
GLOBAL CONSERVATION * NATURAL RESOURCES: GLOBAL OVERVIEW * SUSTAINABILITY)
* Global Environmental Politics (Fifth Edition). Pamela S. Chasek (Assoc Prof of Pol Sci, Manhattan College), David L. Downie (Assoc Prof of Pol Sci, Fairfield U), and Janet Welsh Brown (exec dir, Environmental Defense Fund; chair of the board of directors, Friends of the Earth). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Jan 2010, 384p, $38pb. An introduction to the world’s most pressing environmental issues, covering 1) global environmental politics and its actors, 2) environmental regimes on: toxic pollutants, chemicals, and wastes, atmosphere, ozone, and climate change, natural resources, species and habitats, 3) the effectiveness of environmental regimes (obstacles and opportunities), 4) linkages between environmental politics, economics, and development. This edition includes new material on the latest environmental regimes, growing problems of water quality and scarcity, and the growing role of environment in global security.
(ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL POLITICS * GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS)
* Green Planet Blues: Four Decades of Global Environmental Politics (Fourth Edition). Edited by Ken Conca (Prof of Politics, U of Maryland; Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda) and Geoffrey D. Dabelko (director, Environmental Change and Security Program, Woodrow Wilson Intl Center for Scholars). Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Jan 2010, 384p, $43pb. Collected essays capture diverse viewpoints on global environmental politics: contemporary and classic, activist and scholarly, powerless and powerful. This edition features 14 new readings on transnational activist networks, the UN Environment Programme, environment and conflict/peace-building, green foreign aid, and linkages between climate change and human rights. Section titles: 1) the structure of the international system, 2) global environmental governance institutions, 3) the sustainability debate, 4) environmental conflict and sustainability, and 5) ecological justice. (ENVIRONMENT:
GLOBAL POLITICS * WORLD GOVERNANCE * GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS)
* The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth. John Bellamy Foster (editor, Monthly Review; Prof of Sociology, U of Oregon), Brett Clark (Asst Prof of Sociology, North Caroline U), and Richard York (Assoc Prof of Sociology, U of Oregon). NY: Monthly Review Press (dist. NYU Press), Aug 2010, 352p, $17.95pb. All ecosystems worldwide are now in decline, and humanity in the 21C is facing its ultimate environmental catastrophe. The source of our ecological crisis lies in the capitalist paradox of wealth, which expands individual riches at the expense of public wealth, including the wealth of nature. A huge ecological rift is thus driven between humanity and nature. Fundamental changes in social relations must occur before transcending the current ecological and social problems facing us. Reasons for revolutionary hope are offered. (CAPITALISM AND SUSTAINABILITY
* ENVIRONMENT AND CAPITALISM * CLIMATE CHANGE AND CAPITALISM * SUSTAINABILITY)
* The Plundered Planet: Why We Must—and How We Can—Manage Nature for Global Prosperity. Paul Collier (Prof of Economics, Oxford U). NY: Oxford U Press, May 2010/224p/$24.95. Author of The Bottom Billion (Oxford, 2007; FS *29:12/472) and former director of World Bank development research addresses the global mismanagement of nature as a matter of planetary emergency. Proposes a series of international standards that would help poor countries rich in natural assets better manage these resources, policy changes that would raise world food supply, and the need for alternatives to carbon trading. (DEVELOPMENT * ENVIRONMENT)
* Gaia in Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion, and Earth Ethics in an Age of Crisis. Edited by Eileen Crist (Associate Prof of Sci/Tech, Virginia Tech) and H. Bruce Rinker. Cambridge: MIT Press, Nov 2009/352p/$27pb. Gaian theory, first articulated by James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in the 1970s, holds that the Earth’s processes form a self-regulating system; contributors (including Lovelock and Margulis) discuss the planet’s water supply, global environmental change, biodiversity destruction, global warming, and the influence of Gaia on technology, ethics, and environmental policy.
(ENVIRONMENT * GAIAN THEORY)
* The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. James Lovelock (Lounceston UK). Basic Books, April 2009/288p/$25. Co-author of the Gaia hypothesis in the 1970s, arguing that organisms interact with and regulate Earth’s surface and atmosphere, speculates that humankind will survive the coming Long Emergency, but it won’t be pretty and strong actions are needed. Also see The Revenge of Gaia: Earth’s Climate in Crisis and the Fate of Humanity (Basic Books, 2006/177p/$25), warning that we have driven the Earth to a crisis state, and that humanity faces its greatest trial.
(WORLD FUTURES * CLIMATE CHANGE * GAIA IN CRISIS)
* Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability. Edited by Eugene A. Rosa (Distinguished Prof of Resources Policy, Washington State U) and three others. Cambridge: MIT Press, Dec 2009/328p/$27pb. A state-of-the-art assessment of the huge human ecological footprint that threatens the sustainability of the planet; discusses the new Structural Human Ecology approach to analyzing anthropogenic drivers, recent progress in understanding land use change, international environmental regimes, comparative vulnerability of societies worldwide, and promising paths for future advances in our knowledge. (ENVIRONMENT * FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS)
* Critical Transitions in Nature and Society. Marten Scheffer (Prof of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen U, Netherlands). Princeton UP, July 2009/520p/$45pb. An introduction to critical transitions in complex systems—the radical changes that happen at tipping points when thresholds are passed; covers dynamical systems theory, catastrophe theory, bifurcations, chaos, critical transitions in lakes and oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, how to predict tipping points, how to prevent bad transitions, and how to trigger “good” transitions that work for us.
(ENVIRONMENT * TIPPING POINTS * SYSTEM CHANGES)
* Too Smart for Our Own Good: The Ecological Predicament of Humankind. Craig Dilworth (Dept of Philosophy, Uppsala U, Sweden). Cambridge U Press, Jan 2010/555p/$29.99pb. We are destroying our natural environment at an increasing pace, and undermining preconditions of our existence; drawing on evolution theory, biology, anthropology, economics, environmental science, and history, Dilworth argues that our ecologically disruptive behavior is rooted in our very nature as a species, and points to the very core of the paradigm to which our species must shift if it is to survive.
(ENVIRONMENT * EVOLUTION * HOMO SAPIENS)
* The Medea Hypothesis: Is Life on Earth Ultimately Self-Destructive? Peter Ward (Prof of Biology and Earth Sciences, U of Washington). Princeton UP, May 2009/232p/$24.95. An astrobiologist with NASA uses new geological discoveries to show that nearly all mass extinctions on Earth were caused by life itself; in contrast to Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis that life sustains habitable conditions, Ward invokes Medea, the mythical mother who killed her own children, which explains today’s alarming decline of diversity and biomass; life on Earth doesn’t have to be lethal, but our time is running out.
(WORLD FUTURES * LIFE ON EARTH * ENVIRONMENT)
** Factor Five: The Promise of Resource Productivity. Ernst von Weizsacker (Emmendingen, Germany), Karlson Charlie Hargroves (Brisbane, Aust.), and Michael H. Smith (Brisbane, Aust.). London & Sterling VA: Earthscan, Dec 2009/448p/$39.95. Sequel to Factor Four (von Weizsacker/ Lovins/ Lovins,1997) on the unique historic opportunity to scale up resource efficiency and radically transform the global economy with 80%+ improvements in energy productivity, water use, transport, buildings, and materials, based on concepts such as bio-mimicry and whole system design.
(RESOURCES * ENERGY * WATER)
** State of the World 2010: Beyond the Consumer Culture. The Worldwatch Institute (Washington). NY: W. W. Norton, Jan 2010/304p/$19.95pb. For society to thrive long into the future, we must move beyond our unsustainable consumer culture to one that respects environmental realities; shows how societies worldwide can make this shift and have already started to do so, as a result of actions by governments, the media, and religious organizations. (ENVIRONMENT * RESOURCES)